Percutaneous Ultrasonic Lithotripsy (PUL)
   Kidney stone which is called renal calculus or nephritis is a hard stuff which is formed by urine minerals. Kidney stones are usually discharged through urethras and if they are small, they show no symptoms. But if the size of them grows to 3 millimeters (0.1 inch), they close the ureter and cause a severe pain in abdomens and waist that comes to groin as well. 

   Urethras stone symptoms
   severe pain because of the stone sticking in urethras, otherwise, the stone itself has no sign. There are obstruction, infection, dropsy, severe pain in beaded ribs, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. The pain is severe and it is like a birth pain. Hematuria or blood in urine can be seen. Nephron is the name of kidney structure units which is a complex duct formed by a layer of lining tissue. This duct is closed on one extreme and it is open in pelvis.

   Kidney stone can be fatal. Kidney stone formation reasons
  • Parathyroid disorder that causes calcium more than usual through urine
  • Extra use of calcium and vitamin D
  • Dehydration of the body
  • Alcohol use
  • Hyperthyroidism
  • Having family history
  • Taking extra calcium because of inappropriate nutritional diet