What is a hernia?
 
Belly button repair: a bulge at this part of the abdomen is an umbilical hernia.
A hernia occurs when there is a weakness or hole in the muscular wall that usually keeps abdominal organs in place (the peritoneum).
This defect in the peritoneum allows organs and tissues to push through, or herniate, producing a bulge.
Hernias can commonly be found in the following areas:
 
  • Groin - a femoral hernia creates a bulge just below the groin (more common in women); an inguinal hernia (more common in men) is a bulge in the groin that may reach the scrotum.
  • Upper part of the stomach - a hiatal or hiatus hernia is caused by the upper part of the stomach pushing out of the abdominal cavity and into the chest cavity through an opening in the diaphragm.
  • Belly button - a bulge in this region is produced by an umbilical hernia.
  • Surgical scar - past abdominal surgery can lead to an incisional hernia through the scar.
Causes of hernia
 
With the exception of an incisional hernia (a complication of abdominal surgery), in most cases, there is no obvious reason for a hernia to occur. The risk of hernia increases with age and occurs more commonly in men than in women.
A hernia can be congenital (present at birth) or develop in children who have a weakness in their abdominal wall.
Activities and medical problems that increase pressure on the abdominal wall can lead to a hernia. These include:
 
  • Straining on the toilet (due to long-term constipation, for example)
  • Persistent cough
  • Cystic fibrosis
  • Enlarged prostate
  • Straining to urinate
  • Being overweight or obese
  • Abdominal fluid
  • Lifting heavy items
  • Peritoneal dialysis
  • Poor nutrition
  • Smoking
  • Physical exertion
  • Undescended testicles
 
Symptoms of hernia
In many cases, a hernia is no more than a painless swelling that presents no problems and needs no immediate medical attention.
 
A hernia may, however, be the cause of discomfort and pain, with symptoms often becoming worse when standing, straining, or lifting heavy items. Most people who notice increasing swelling or soreness eventually see a doctor.
 
In some cases, a hernia needs immediate surgery, for instance, when part of the gut becomes obstructed or strangulated by an inguinal hernia.
 
Immediate medical attention should be sought if an inguinal hernia produces acute abdominal complaints such as:
  • Pain
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
The swelling, in these cases, is typically firm and tender and cannot be pushed back up into the abdomen.
A hiatal hernia can produce symptoms of acid reflux, such as heartburn, which is caused by stomach acid getting into the esophagus.
Tests and diagnosis of hernia
The diagnosis of a hernia is usually simple - the doctor will often be able to see it and feel it. While the doctor is feeling for the hernia, he may ask the patient to bend or move, or to cough, as this can enlarge the bulge.
To visualize the problem, the doctor may arrange an imaging test, such as an ultrasound scan or a CT (computerized tomography) scan.
 
Treatments for a hernia
For a hernia without symptoms, the usual course of action is to watch and wait, but this can be risky for certain types of hernia, such as femoral hernias.
Within 2 years of a femoral hernia being diagnosed, 40 percent result in bowel strangulation.
 
There is no real consensus among doctors regarding the benefits of elective surgery (non-emergency surgery) for hernia repair in the case of an inguinal hernia without symptoms that can be pushed back into the abdomen.
A hernia can be repaired laparoscopically or with open surgery.
The American College of Surgeons, and some other medical bodies, consider elective surgery unnecessary in such cases, recommending instead a course of watchful waiting.
 
Others recommend surgical repair to remove the risk of later strangulation of the gut, a complication where blood supply is cut off to an area of tissue, which requires an emergency procedure.
 
These health authorities consider an earlier, routine operation preferable to a more risky emergency procedure.
 
Although surgical options depend on individual circumstances, including the location of the hernia, there are two main types of surgical intervention for hernia:
  • Open surgery
  • Laparoscopic operation (keyhole surgery)
Open surgical repair closes the hernia using sutures, mesh, or both, and the surgical wound in the skin is closed with sutures, staples, or surgical glue.
 
Laparoscopic repair is used for repeat operations to avoid previous scars, and while usually more expensive, is less likely to cause complications such as infection.
 
Surgical repair of a hernia guided by a laparoscope allows for the use of smaller incisions, enabling a faster recovery from the operation.
 
A 2014 systematic review of 20 years of data on conventional open hernia repair (herniorrhaphy) and laparoscopic hernia repair (herniorrhaphy) in infants and children found that laparoscopic surgery is faster than open surgery for bilateral hernias, but that there is no significant difference in operating time for unilateral inguinal hernia repair.
 
The rate of recurrence is similar for both types of procedure, but the rate of complications, such as wound infection, is higher for open surgery, especially for infants. Inguinal hernia is one of the most common surgical conditions in infants and children.
 
The hernia is repaired in the same way as in open surgery but is guided by a small camera and a light introduced through a tube. Surgical instruments are inserted through another small incision. The abdomen is inflated with gas to help the surgeon see better and give them space to work; the whole operation is performed under general anesthetic.
 Congenital diaphragmatic hernia
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia is an uncommon birth defect involving a malformation that affects the lungs and produces a hole in the diaphragm. This hole allows abdominal contents to protrude into the thoracic cavity, usually on the left side. The pressure on growing lungs can hinder their development.
 
This deformity affects an estimated 1 in every 2,000 to 5,000 infants (live births), with up to half of these infants failing to survive.
 
The infants that do survive require critical care treatment and corrective surgery. They often go on to have:
  • Chronic respiratory tract disease
  • Neurodevelopmental problems
  • Hearing loss
  • Gastroesophageal reflux